The brainstem is made up of the midbrain, medulla, and pons. This part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain to the spinal cord. The brainstem is responsible for maintaining your vitals like heart rate, breathing, and body temperature. It also contributes to other functions like sneezing, coughing, and swallowing.
Concussion Symptoms: In a concussion caused by a sudden head twist, the brainstem can be temporarily separated from the spinal cord, which can effectively sever the corpus callosum (the connective tissues between the right and left hemispheres of the brain). The portion of the brainstem that controls lens focusing within our eyes can be damaged in a concussion, resulting in vision impairment. After a concussion, injury to the brain stem can also contribute to nausea.